Black Jews have lived in Iberia and Africa as far back as the time of the Carthaginans. Jewish traders sailed on Carthaginian merchant ships and traded all along the coast of North Africa and even into the Americas.
Many African tribes along the coast of North Africa and way into the southern savanahs, beyond the Sahara deserts they were ancient Hebraic jewish tribes. Those tribes got caught up in the events that followed the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammed all the way from Medina to the Maghrib. It is widely acknowledged that one of the most determined fighters against the black Arab enchroachment on black African berber property was Queen Kahina a black jewess Queen of the Maghrib.
Early Arab scholars who visited the southern fringes of the Sahara desert report the presence of jewish tribes in places such as ancient Ghana and Mali. Many tribes in Africa today still recall their Hebraic roots and many more continue their ancient jewish laws and tradition unadulterated by the politics of the modern days.
When the African Moors moved North and conquered Spain, it was a confederation of African Muslims, African Jews and African Christians who effected the victory. The African Jews and the African Muslims were brothers genetically, phenotypically, and historically. They were the same black people pursuing the same goals of righteous existence.
So the African Moorish Empire took root in Iberia and the rest of the southern mediterranean coast. Black African Muslims and Black African Jews with their Black African christians as such ruled Europe for the next 700 years.
The un-Holy Roman Catholic Church
That was when the Pope of Rome who was the chief of the rebellious pale European tribe who fell outside civilization began his open war against the armies of Jah, Allah the God of the Africans.
The Roman papacy organized the rudest, cruelest, barbaric sort of insurrection against the rule of the Black Moorish caliphates who brought light and civilization to the pale Europeans.
The most wretched rogues, brigands, terrorists, lowlive mass murders, predecessors of mass killers like Christoph Colons (aka Christopher Columbus) were deployed into this battle.
This movement was variously known as the “reconquistada” or “the crusades”. The Pope was always the Commander in Chief as there were no true pale European nations so to speak at that time. They all lived under this super-tribal formation called the un-Holy Roman Empire or the un-Holy Roman Catholic Church.
This Holy Rome was not the old Roman Empire. This un-Holy Rome was the product of some outlawed occultist priesthood who had sworn to mis-use their knowledge of the ancient African mysteries to create a rebellion on earth.
The Ancient African Mysteries, the Papacy and the Roman Catholic Church
The mysteries had originally been brought to old Rome by black Africans monks such as St. Ignatius of Antioch, Origen, Tertullian, St.Augustine, and many other un-named masters of the old science. Rome was a child of Africa and for centuries had always been oriented towards North Africa as opposed to North Europe.
Black Africans could become and were Roman citizens, just as many Romans migrated and settled Africa. As such it was not surprising that branches of African created mysteries like christianity should be taken from southern Libya and upper Nile Egypt to Rome and Athens to illuminate their minds.
Many cults were found in old Rome and they thrived and died at their time. This one mystery that came from Africa later called christianity was hijacked by some bad-minded types the tail end of the power of old Rome.
They then destroyed old Rome from within, like some cancerous tumors and began their asent to dominion over the rest of the earth. They called themselves the “Holy” Roman Universal (Catholic) Empire (Church). They would go out into the world and overthrow the ancient domains of the old mysteries, the real histories and replace them with fallcies.
The Setian Rebellion Project, Europe and the Roman Catholic Church
The spiritual and temporal leader of this entreprise was the Pope. He was based in Vatican. He was the leader of this evil set of rebellious outlaw priesthood who with the aid of peverted knowledge of some ancient Ta-Muurish (African) mysteries first cast his stranglehold over the asiatic pale tribes of Europe who were refugees from the Steppes of Russia. Those tribes were making very important demographic changes in Europe at that time.
He was now ready to unleash his minions against the true priestly order, turn the world unside down, mock Yasus, Mohammed and Mary, and kick Amen-Ras out of his kingdom.
That was when he launched the crusades. The reconquistadas. The Pope, the modern day descendant of Set the rebel who sought to kill Osiris the King; Set the red who would fight against Osiris the Perfect Black.
In launching the crusades, the Papacy advised his pale European minions, to loot and destroy the Moorish Jewish cities of Jerusalem, Cairo, Marrackesh, Toledo, Axum, and Benin (which he called Guinea).
He gave them the sacrament of indulgence which was a carte blanche cheque to commit evil in the name of the Pope. They set out thus properly mandated and authorized by their mystic rebel father, to bring a kind of evil, and perfidy which years of civilized programming had removed from the minds of the earth generations.
The pale Europeans came out of the dark ages and domination of the Pope, to spread the dark ages and Papal domination upon the world.
This was the movement of pale European tribes under the direction of the Pope of Rome to conquer the land of the blacks from which they were expelled in the very distant ancient past for some sin of jealously, theft and murder.
At the time of his rise, he was set to prove the value of his doctrine of rapine and pillage, so he delibrately instructed his reconquistadas to use the “shock and awe” tactis of rape and needless destruction.
Perfidy and treachery. Ignominy, lies and Ignobility were the choice weapons of the Pope and his army.
They worked for him too.
Because soon his army was destroying and looting, burning and stealing, killing and sacrificing as much as they wanted.
The noble Muurs were caught off balance by this new concept of ignominy and perfidy in wars or in love. They were higher moral beings. They paid for this with their kingdom and civilization which was stolen by the Pope of Rome, and his hordes of pale crusaders and conquistadas.
Spain was lost, then Portugal, then Sicily, Corsica, then Jerusalem, Cairo, then Cape Verde, then Lagos (which belonged to Benin-Guinea) all in quick succession. Black domains now dominions of the Pope.
More would be lost in the later times. All was eventually lost when the pale Europeans had the boldness and the gall to re-designate the noble Muurs of Marrakesh as negros of negroland. It was when the pale European dropped the religio-ethnic identification of “jew” from the compound word “black-jew” and so created the new “blacks”, that he began laying the foundation for the present day ignorance of black Muurs and black Jews about their true origins.
We heard about the racist over-reachings of the pale Europeans upon conquering Iberia. Their excesses and their excreations. Their inquisitions and their expulsions. The bones of the dead still speak through the genes of their generations living today…us…the living Muurs.
What happened to the black jews of Spain? The Marranos?
What Happened to the Marranos, the Black Moorish Jews of Spain?
Beginning in 1478, in the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, no less than 13,000 Marranos (Black Jews) were executed by the Inquisition. At the same time, the monarchs continued to employ Jewish functionaries – such as Don Isaac Abravanel – in their court. Luis de Torres another Spanish black Jew played a pivotal role in Chritoph Colon’s first journey to North America.
In 1480s the Spanish inquisition was launched, and hundreds of thousands of jews and muslims were hounded, persecuted, jailed, slaved and deported.
On March 31, 1492 the Edict of Expulsion was signed, resulting in 300,000 Marranos Black Jews to the coast of Benin/Guinea in West Africa. Sao Tome, Principe, Cabo Verde were some of the places that they were first sent. Their cemetries, and descendants still exist today on those Islands to verify this account.
The last Jews left on August 2, 1492, the day before Columbus sailed. The first words Columbus wrote in his log were: “After you expelled the Jews your majesties sent me with a fleet.”
That was also the traditional day of mourning (9th of Av) for the destruction of the First and Second Temples.
In 1694, the 17th Council of Toledo made all Spanish Jews slaves. They were shipped to the Island of Jamaica and Hispaniola. Others went to Sao Tome, Cabo Verde, and Mauritius. Many of them escaped the Spanish jurisdiction and began independent communes in the hinterlands or the mountains. The Spanish word “Marroons” is a play on their Spanish ethnic designation the “Marranos” (rather than “cimarron” root the conventionally accepted root).
Marranos (means Moorish Jews in Spanish) were the black Jews of Spain who ruled that country for 700 years with the black Muslims of Morocco, Senegal and Nigeria.
July 11, 2009
Richard Lobban, “Jews in Cape Verde and On the Guinea Coast” Paper Presented at the UNiversity of Massachusetts-Darmouth 11 February 1996.
Edward Rothstein, “Jews in the New Wilderness” New York Times September 24, 2004
Columbus’s Diaries in the original Spanish
Alicia B. Gould y Quincy, “Nueva lista documentada de los tripulantes de Colón en 1492: Luis de Torres”, Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia 90 (1927), p. 541-552.
Wallis Budge, “Egyptian Book of the Dead”
Severan dynasty(The beginning of the rule of Negroes in Europe)
The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235. The dynasty was founded by the Roman general Septimius Severus, who rose to power during the civil war of 193, known as the Year of the Five Emperors.
Although Septimius Severus successfully restored peace following the upheaval of the late 2nd century, the dynasty was disturbed by highly unstable family relationships, and constant political turmoil, foreshadowing the imminent Crisis of the Third Century. It was the last lineage of the Principate founded by Augustus.
Septimius Severus (193–211)
Lucius Septimius Severus was born to a family of equestrian rank in the Roman province of Africa proconsularis. He rose through military service to consular rank under the later Antonines. Proclaimed emperor in 193 by his legionaries in Noricum during the political unrest that followed the death of Commodus, he secured sole rule over the empire in 197 after defeating his last rival, Clodius Albinus, at the Battle of Lugdunum.
Severus fought a successful war against the Parthians and campaigned with success against barbarian incursions in Roman Britain, rebuilding Hadrian’s Wall. In Rome, his relations with the Senate were poor, but he was popular with the commoners, as with his soldiers, whose salary he raised. Starting in 197, the influence of his Praetorian prefect Gaius Fulvius Plautianus was a negative influence; the latter was executed in 205. One of Plautianus’s successors was the jurist Aemilius Papinianus. Severus continued official persecution of Christians and Jews, as they were the only two groups who would not assimilate their beliefs to the official syncretistic creed.
 Caracalla (198–217)
The eldest son of Severus, he was born Lucius Septimius Bassianus in Lugdunum, Gaul. “Caracalla” was a nickname referring to the Gallic hooded tunic he habitually wore. Upon his father’s death, Caracalla was proclaimed co-emperor with his brother Geta. Conflict between the two culminated in the assassination of the latter. Reigning alone, Caracalla was noted for lavish bribes to the legionaries and unprecedented cruelty, authorizing numerous assassinations of perceived enemies and rivals. He campaigned with indifferent success against the Alamanni. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are the most enduring monument of his rule. He was assassinated while en route to a campaign against the Parthians by a Praetorian Guard.
 Geta (209–211)
Younger son of Severus, Geta was made co-emperor with his older brother Caracalla upon his father’s death. Unlike the much more successful joint reign of Marcus Aurelius and his brother Lucius Verus in the previous century, relations were hostile between the two Severid brothers from the very start. Geta was assassinated in his mother’s apartments by order of Caracalla, who thereafter ruled as sole Augustus.
 Intermezzo: Macrinus (217–218)
M.M. Opelius Macrinus was born in 164 at Caesarea. Although coming from a humble background that was not dynastically related to the Severan dynasty, he rose through the imperial household until, under the emperor Caracalla, he was made prefect of the praetorian guard. On account of the cruelty and treachery of the emperor, Macrinus became involved in a conspiracy to kill him, and ordered the praetorian guard to do so. On April 8th, 217, Caracalla was assassinated traveling to Carrhae. Three days later, Macrinus was declared Augustus.
His most significant early decision was to make peace with the Persians, but many thought that the terms were degrading to the Romans. However, his downfall was his refusal to award the pay and privileges promised to the eastern troops by Caracalla. He also kept those forces wintered in Syria, where they became attracted to the young Elagabalus. After months of mild rebellion by the bulk of the army in Syria, Macrinus took his loyal troops to meet the army of Elagabalus near Antioch. Despite a good fight by the praetorian guard, his soldiers were defeated. Macrinus managed to escape ito Chalcedon but his authority was lost: he was betrayed and executed after a short reign of just 14 months.
M. Opelius Diadumenianus was the son of Macrinus, born in 208. He was given the title Caesar in 217, when his father became Emperor. After his father’s defeat outside Antioch, he tried to escape east to Parthia, but was captured and killed before he could achieve this.
 Elagabalus (218–222)
Born Varius Avitus Bassianus on May 16th 205, known later as M. Aurelius Antonius, he was appointed at an early age to be priest of the sun God, Elagabalus, represented by a phallus, by which name he is known to historians (his name is sometimes written “Heliogabalus”). He was proclaimed emperor by the troops of Emesa, his hometown, who were instigated to do so by Elagabalus’s grandmother, Julia Maesa. She spread a rumor that Elagabalus was the secret son of Caracalla. This revolt spread to the entire Syrian army (which, at the time, was swollen with troops raised by the Emperor Caracalla, and not fully loyal to Macrinus), and eventually they were to win the short struggle that followed by defeating Macrinus at a battle just outside Antioch. Elagabalus was then accepted by the senate, and began the slow journey to Rome.
His reign in Rome has long been known for outrageousness, although the historical sources are few, and in many cases not to be fully trusted. He is said to have smothered guests at a banquet by flooding the room with rose petals: married his male lover – who was then referred as the ‘Empress’s husband’, and married one of the vestal virgins. Some say he was transgender, and one ancient text states that he offered half the empire to the physician who could give him female genitalia.
The running of the Empire during this time was mainly left to his grandmother and mother (Julia Soamias). Seeing that her grandson’s outrageous behavior could mean the loss of power, Julia Maesa persuaded Elagabalus to accept his cousin Alexander Severus as Caesar (and thus the nominal Emperor to be). However, Alexander was popular with the troops, who viewed their new Emperor with dislike: when Elagabalus, jealous of this popularity, removed the title of Caesar from his nephew the enraged praetorian guard swore to protect him. Elagabalus had to beg the troops to let him live, and this humiliation could not last for long.
 Alexander Severus (222–235)
Born Marcus Julius Gessius Bassianus Alexianus, Alexander was adopted as heir apparent by his slightly older and very unpopular cousin, the Emperor Elagabalus at the urging of the influential and powerful Julia Maesa— who was grandmother of both cousins and who’d arranged for the emperor’s acclamation by the Third Legion.
On March 6th, 222 when Alexander was just fourteen, a rumor went around the city troops that Alexander had been killed and this triggered his ascension as emperor. The eighteen year-old Emperor Elagabalus and his mother were both taken from the palace, dragged through the streets, murdered and thrown in the river Tiber by the praetorian guard, who then proclaimed Alexander Severus as Augustus.
Ruling from the age of fourteen under the influence of his able mother, Julia Avita Mamaea, Alexander restored, to some extent, the moderation that characterized the rule of Septimius Severus. The rising strength of the Sassanid Persian Empire (226–651 AD) heralded perhaps the greatest external challenge that Rome faced in the third century. His prosecution of the war against a German invasion of Gaul led to his overthrow by the troops he was leading there, whose regard the twenty-seven year old had lost during the affair.
His death was the epoch event beginning the troubled Crisis of the Third Century where a succession of short-reigning military emperors, revolting generals, and counter claimants presided over governmental chaos, civil war, general instability and great economic disruption. He was succeeded by Maximinus Thrax, the first of a series of weak emperors, each ruling on average only 2 to 3 years, that ended fifty years later with the Emperor Diocletian ordered split between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires.
 Women of the Severan dynasty
The women of the Severan dynasty, beginning with Septimius Severus’s wife Julia Domna, were notably active in advancing the careers of their male relatives. Other notable women who exercised power behind the scenes in this period include Julia Maesa, sister of Julia Domna, and Maesa’a two daughters Julia Soaemias, mother of Elagabalus, and Julia Avita Mamaea, mother of Alexander Severus.
 External links
- Simon Swain, Stephen Harrison and Jas Elsner (eds), Severan culture (Cambridge, CUP, 2007).
- Handy, Markus, Die Severer und das Heer (Berlin: Verlag Antike, 2009) (Studien zur Alten Geschichte, 10).
Jews Of Nigeria, Senegal and Congo
Moreover,with Israel coming under Greek, Persian and later Roman rule and dependency, renewed waves of Jewish refugees including traders and artisans began to set up more communities in Egypt, Cyrenaica, Nubia and the Punic Empire, notably in Carthage. From Carthage they began to scatter into various historically established, as well as newly emerging Jewish communities south of the Atlas mountains nearer to the modern day Mauritania, Niger, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Cameroon and Congo. Several Jewish nomadic groups also moved across the Sahara from Nubia and the ancient kingdom of Kush towards west Africa.
Various East and West African ethinic nations lay verifiable claim to their Jewish ancestral heritage. The Falashas, the most famous of those Black Jews have been validated. Close to three hundred thousand of those black Falasha Jews live in the modern State of Isreal as practising Jews.
The Lembas of South Africa, another so-called Bantu tribe have a cogent and valid claim to Jewish ancestory and heritage backed by solid genetic evidence i.e. the prevalence of the so-called Cohen modal J haplogroup. The Lembas as a group are indistinguishable from their Bantu neighbours suggestiing that most Bantus groups possess this archetypal Jewish genetic haplogroup. It implies that there are potentially more bloodline Jews on the continent of Africa than anywhere else including modern Europe and Israel.
The names of old Jewish communities south of the Atlas mountains (around the regions of modern Niger, Nigeria), many of which existed well into Renaissance times, can be found in documents in synagogue archives in Cairo. See “George E. Lichtblau”
Jewish and Islamic chronicles cite the existence of Jewish rulers of certain Jewish tribal groups and clans (self identifying as Jewish) scattered throughout Mauritania, Senegal, the Western Sudan, Nigeria, and Ghana. See Ismael Diadie Haidara, “Les Juifs a` Timbouctou”, Recueil de sources relatives au commerce juif a Timbouctou au XIXe siecle, Editions Donniya, Bamako, 1999.
According to the Tarikh es Soudan recorded by Abderrahman ben Abdallah es-Sadi (translated by O.Houdas) a Jewish community was formed by a group of Egyptian Jews, who had travelled to the West Africa through Chad. See also: al-Kati M., “Tarikh al-Fattash, 1600″.
Another such community was located near the Niger River by the name of Koukiya led by a ruler known as Dia or Dji, a shortened form of “Dia min al Yaman” or Diallaiman (meaning he who comes from Yemen). According to local traditions, Diallaiman was a member of one of the Ethiopian-Jewish colonies transplanted from Yemen to Ethiopian-Abbysinia in the 6th century C.E. Dialliaman is said to have moved to West Africa along with his brother. They set up the Jewish community in Northern Nigeria which later merged with the famous 7 Hausa States. See Meek C.K., “Northern Nigeria Tribes” Volume 1, Oxford, p.66.
A 9th century Jewish traveller Eldad ben-Mahli (also known as Eldad the Danite) related accounts about the location of some of the lost tribes of the House of Israel. According to this account, the tribe of Dan had migrated from Palestine so as not to take part in the internecine civil wars at the time of Yeroboam’s succession. It was reported that this section was residing in the land of Havila beyond the waters of Ethiopia where there was much gold i.e. West Africa.
It was further reported that three other tribes had joined the tribe of Dan namely Naphtali, Gad, Asher. Those joined up with Dan in the land of Havila in the times of Sennacherib. They had an entire body of scriptures barring Esther and Lamentations. They neither used the Talmud nor the Mishna, but they had a Talmud of their own in which all the laws were cited in the name of Joshua the son of Nun. See Nahum Slouschz, “Travels in North Africa” Philadelphia 1927, p.227.
Ibn Khaldun, who lived in the 13th century, a respected authority on Berber history testified about the Black Jews of Western Sudan with whom he personally interacted. The famous muslim geographer al-Idrisi, born in Ceuta, Spain in the 12th century, wrote extensively about Jewish Negroes in the Western Sudan.
Black Jews were fully integrated and achieved pre-eminence in many West African kingdoms. For instance Jews were believed to have settled in great West African empires such as Songhai, Mali, Ghana and Kanem-Bornu empires. According to numerous accounts of contemporary visitors to the region several rulers, and administrators of the Songhai empire were of Jewish origins until Askia Muhammad came to power in 1492 and decreed that all Jews either convert to Islam or leave the region. See Ismael Diadie Haidara, “Les Juifs a` Timbouctou”, Recueil de sources relatives au commerce juif a Timbouctou au XIXe siecle, Editions Donniya, Bamako, 1999.
The 16th century historian and traveler Leon Africanus, was a Hebrew-speaking Jewish convert to Islam, raised in a Jewish household by Jewish parents of Moroccan descent. Leon Africanus travelled extensively in Africa south of the Sahara where he encountered innumerable Black African Jewish communities. Leon later converted to Catholicism but remained interested in Jewish communities he encountered throughout his travels in West Africa. See Leo Africanus (al-Hassan b. al -Wazzan al-Zayyati), Della discrittione dell’Africa per Giovanni Leoni Africano, Settima Parte, in G.B. Ramusio, Delle navigationi e viaggi. Venice 1550, I, ff.78-81r.
Additional evidence is provided by surviving oral traditions of numerous African ethnic groups, including links to biblical ancestors, names of localities, and ceremonies with affinities to Jewish ritual practices. Moreover, the writings of several modern West African historians indicate that the memories of Jewish roots historical in West Africa continue to survive.
For instance, there are a number of historical records of small Jewish kingdoms and tribal groups known as Beni Israel that were part of the Wolof and Mandinge communities. These existed in Senegal from the early Middle Ages up to the 18th century, when they were forced to convert to Islam. Some of these claimed to be descendants of the tribe of Dan, the traditional tribe of Jewish gold and metal artisans, who are also said to have built the “Golden Calf”.
Black Jews are said to have formed the roots of a powerful craft tradition among the still-renowned Senegalese goldsmiths, jewelers and other metal artisans. The name of an old Senegalese province called “Juddala” is said to attest to the notable impact Jews made in this part of the world. In addition to the Jewish tribal groups in Senegal who claim to be descendants of the tribe of Dan, the Ethiopian Jews also trace their ancestry to the tribe of Dan.
Additionally, Mr. Bubu Hama, a former president of the National Assembly in Niger and a prolific writer on African history has argued in many treatise as well as lecture tours that the Tuaregs had a Jewish queen in early medieval times, and that some Jewish Tuareg clans had preserved their adherence to that faith, in defiance of both Islamic and Christian missionary pressure, until the 18th century. In several of his books Hama cites the genealogies of Jewish rulers of the Tuareg and Hausa kingdoms. See “Lichtblau”.
Some accounts place some West African Jewish community in the Ondo forest of Nigeria, south of Timbouctou. This community maintained a Torah Scroll as late as 1930s, written in Aramaic that had been burnt into parchment with a hot iron instead of ink so it could not be changed. See Gonen Rivaka, “The Quest for the Ten Lost tribes of israel: To the Ends of the Earth”, Jason Aronson Inc., Northville, NJ., 2002 at pages 180-181.
The Igbos of Nigeria, one of the bigger nations that comprise Nigeria lay a strong claim to Jewish ancestry as borne out by their mores, laws, rituals and idioms which have a heavily accented old testament Hebrew flavour.See Ilona R, “The Ibos: Jews of Nigeria,” volume 1, Research Findings Historical Links, Commentaries, Narratives,” 2004, Mega Press Limited, Abuja, Nigeria
Some of the established Jewish communities existed in such still renowned places as Gao, Timbuktu Bamako, Agadez, and Kano. In Timbucktu, the UNESCO still maintains notable archives containing records of the old Jewish community of Mali and the Hausa states of Nigeria.
King Kenneth Dubh – Black King of Scotland
A curious aspect of the early history of Scotland concerns various stories around Kenneth. King Kenneth was also known as ‘Kenneth the Niger’ or Kenneth Dubh, a surname which means ‘the black man’.
It is a matter of history that many seafaring warriors were North African, travelled via Iberia into Europe, and joined in many cultures and held power and position. Niger Val Dubh lived and reigned over certain black divisions in Scotland, and some histories state that a race known as ‘the sons of the blacks’ succeeded him. (e.g. see JA Rogers, Sex and Race).
Kenneth III was king of Scotland from 997 to 1005. He was the son of King Dubh (Dub mac Mail Choluim – 962-967), fourth cousin of the previous king Constantine III, and first cousin of his successor Malcolm II. Kenneth was the last king of Scotland to succeed to the throne through the tanistry system, whereby the succession was shared between two family lines and the dying king named his successor from the other family line. This system led to constant struggle between the ruling families and was abandoned. Kenneth and his son Giric were both killed at Monzievaird, Tayside in 1005.
His first cousin Malcolm succeeded him and abolished the tanistry system by killing all of his male descendants. However Kenneth had a granddaughter, Gruoch, via his daughter Boite, whose first husband was Gillacomgain. They had a son called Lulach. She then married King Macbeth I of Scotland (becoming Lady Macbeth). On the death of Macbeth her son via her first marriage, Kenneth III’s great grandson, succeeded to the throne, to become King Lulach of Scotland. According to this history, the blood of Kenneth flows through the royal houses of Scotland.
This story captures a curious fact about the Gaels from Gallicia – some were dark and have left many traces in Irish, Welsh and Scots clans.